TiMe Is RuNNinG OuT!!!

Revolutionary Solar Cell

Konarka’s patented PowerPlastic® is a thin, lightweight, and very flexible material that will serve as an integrated low-cost source of power for portable devices, on and off-grid systems, and for structures. Konarka has developed proprietary semi-conductor organic polymers that exhibit:

  1. low cost,
  2. abundant supply, and
  3. low toxicity

PowerPlastic® has distinct advantages relative to conventional PV technology.

Low Light PerformanceHigher efficiencies at moderate and low light levels.
FlexibilityCan be flexed to a 2-in diameter, making it more conformable for product integration.
Broader SpectrumThe combination of polymers is able to absorb a broader portion of the light spectrum.
Positive Thermal Co-efficientCell efficiency increases with temperature, whereas rising temperatures degrade the performance of other technologies.
Abundant Material SupplyThe raw materials are not limited by the availability of silicon.

Beyond these key differentiators, its potential for further unique attributes, such as transparency and the ability to print camouflage and other patterns, have attracted the attention, imagination, and investment of several branches of the US military, the National Science Foundation, DARPA, the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, Fortune 100 companies, and leading venture capital firms.

what is a sound card

An introduction to sound card

A sound card is an expansion board that enables a computer to manipulate and output sounds. Sound cards are necessary for nearly all CD-ROMs and have become commonplace on modern personal computers. Sound cards enable the computer to output sound through speakers connected to the board, to record sound input from a microphone connected to the computer, and manipulate sound stored on a disk.
Nearly all sound cards support MIDI, a standard for representing music electronically. In addition, most sound cards are Sound Blaster-compatible, which means that they can process commands written for a Sound Blaster card, the de facto standard for PC sound.
Sound cards use two basic methods to translate digital data into analog sounds:

FM Synthesis mimics different musical instruments according to built-in formulas.
Wavetable Synthesis relies on recordings of actual instruments to produce sound. Wavetable synthesis produces more accurate sound, but is also more expensive.


Before the invention of the sound card, a PC could make one sound - a beep. Although the computer could change the beep's frequency and duration, it couldn't change the volume or create other sounds.

At first, the beep acted primarily as a signal or a warning. Later, developers created music for the earliest PC games using beeps of different pitches and lengths. This music was not particularly realistic -- you can hear samples from some of these soundtracks at Crossfire Designs.

Fortunately, computers' sound capabilities increased greatly in the 1980s, when several manufacturers introduced add-on cards dedicated to controlling sound. Now, a computer with a sound card can do far more than just beep. It can produce 3-D audio for games or surround sound playback for DVDs. It can also capture and record sound from external sources.

General characteristics

An example of a sound card for PC

Sound cards usually feature a digital-to-analog converter, that converts recorded or generated digital data into an analogformat. The output signal is connected to an amplifier, headphones, or external device using standard interconnects, such as a TRS connector or an RCA connector. If the number and size of connectors is too large for the space on the backplate the connectors will be off-board, typically using a breakout box, or an auxiliary backplate. More advanced cards usually include more than one sound chip to provide for higher data rates and multiple simultaneous functionality, eg between digital sound production and synthesized sounds (usually for real-time generation of music and sound effects using minimal data and CPU time). Digital sound reproduction is usually done with multi-channel DACs, which are capable of multiple digital samples simultaneously at different pitches and volumes, or optionally applying real-time effects like filtering or distortion. Multi-channel digital sound playback can also be used for music synthesis when used with a compliance, and even multiple-channel emulation. This approach has become common as manufacturers seek to simplify the design and the cost of sound cards.

Most sound cards have a line in connector for signal from a cassette tape recorder or similar sound source. The sound card digitizes this signal and stores it (under control of appropriate matching computer software) on the computer's hard disk for storage, editing, or further processing. Another common external connector is the microphone connector, for use by a microphone or other low level input device. Input through a microphone jack can then be used by speech recognition software or for Voice over IP applications.

( Adapted from Wikipedia )